Find the Right Expert
If you are having difficulty finding the expert you need, our analysts will be happy
to recommend experts.
Simply fill out an Expert Request and leave the potential
experts box empty.
If you would rather find experts directly, below are the advanced search options
you may use.
Words and Phrases
You do not need to use any special punctuation or commands to search for a phrase.
Simply enter the phrase the way it ordinarily appears. You can use a phrase
anywhere in a search request. Example:
apple w/5 fruit salad
If a phrase contains a noise word, the search engine will skip over the noise
word when searching for it. For example, a search for statue of liberty
would retrieve any document containing the word statue, any intervening word,
and the word liberty.
Punctuation inside of a search word is treated as a space. Thus, can't
would be treated as a phrase consisting of two words: can and t. 1843(c)(8)(ii)
would become 1843 c 8 ii (four words).
Numeric Range Searching
A numeric range search is a search for any numbers that fall within a range.
To add a numeric range component to a search request, enter the upper and lower
bounds of the search separated by ~~ like this:
apple w/5 12~~17
This request would find any document containing apple within 5 words of a
number between 12 and 17.
- A numeric range search includes the upper and lower bounds (so 12
and 17 would be retrieved in the above example).
- Numeric range searches only work with positive integers.
- For purposes of numeric range searching, decimal points and commas
are treated as spaces and minus signs are ignored. For example, -123,456.78
would be interpreted as: 123 456 78 (three numbers). Using alphabet
customization, the interpretation of punctuation characters can be changed.
For example, if you change the comma and period from space to ignore,
then 123,456.78 would be interpreted as 12345678.
Wildcards (* and ?)
A search word can contain the wildcard characters * and ?. A
? in a word matches any single character, and a * matches any number
of characters. The wildcard characters can be in any position in a word.
appl* would match apple, application, etc.
*cipl* would match principle, participle, etc.
appl? would match apply and apple but not apples.
ap*ed would match applied, approved, etc.
Use of the * wildcard character near the beginning of a word will slow searches
Fuzzy searching will find a word even if it is misspelled. For example, a
fuzzy search for apple will find appple. Fuzzy searching can
be useful when you are searching text that may contain typographical errors, or
for text that has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR).
To add fuzziness, use the % character. The number of % characters you add
determines the number of differences the search engine will ignore when searching
for a word. The position of the % characters determines how many letters at
the start of the word have to match exactly.
ba%nana Word must begin with ba and have at most one difference
between it and banana.
b%%anana Word must begin with b and have at most two differences
between it and banana.
Phonic searching looks for a word that sounds like the word you are searching for
and begins with the same letter. For example, a phonic search for Smith
will also find Smithe and Smythe.
To ask the search engine to search for a word phonically, put a # in front of the
word in your search request. Examples: #smith, #johnson
Phonic searching is somewhat slower than other types of searching and tends to make
Stemming extends a search to cover grammatical variations on a word. For example,
a search for fish would also find fishing. A search for applied
would also find applying, applies, and apply.
If you want to add stemming, add a ~ at the end of words that you want stemmed in
Regular Expression Searching
Regular expression searching provides a way to search for advanced combinations
of characters. A regular expression included in a search request must
be quoted and must begin with ##. Examples:
Apple and "##199[0-9]"
Apple and "##19[0-9]+"
A regular expression must match a single whole word. For example, you could
not search for "apple pie" with a regular expression "##app.*ie".
For information on the regular expression syntax, see the dtswin.hlp topic "Regular
Expressions". For search speed purposes, a regular expression is like
the * wildcard character: the closer to the front of a word the expression is, the
more it will slow searching. "Appl*" will be nearly as fast as "Apple",
while "*pple" will be much slower.
Variable Term Weighting
When the search engine sorts search results after a search, by default all words
in a request count equally in counting hits. However, you can change this
by specifying the relative weights for each term in your search request, like this:
apple:5 and pear:1
This request would retrieve the same documents as apple and pear but, the search
engine would weight apple five times as heavily as pear when sorting the results.
Use the AND connector in a search request to connect two expressions, both of which
must be found in any document retrieved. For example:
apple pie and poached pear would retrieve any document that contained both
(apple or banana) and (pear w/5 grape) would retrieve any document that (1) contained
either apple OR banana, AND (2) contained pear within
5 words of grape.
Use the OR connector in a search request to connect two expressions, at least one
of which must be found in any document retrieved. For example, apple pie or
poached pear would retrieve any document that contained apple pie,
poached pear, or both.
Use the W/N connector in a search request to specify that one word or phrase must
occur within N words of the other. For example, apple w/5 pear would
retrieve any document that contained apple within 5 words of pear.
The following are examples of search requests using W/N:
(apple or pear) w/5 banana
(apple w/5 banana) w/10 pear
(apple and banana) w/10 pear
Some types of complex expressions using the W/N connector will produce ambiguous
results and should not be used. The following are examples of ambiguous search
(apple and banana) w/10 (pear and grape)
(apple w/10 banana) w/10 (pear and grape)
In general, at least one of the two expressions connected by W/N must be a single
word or phrase or a group of words and phrases connected by OR. Example:
(apple and banana) w/10 (pear or grape)
(apple and banana) w/10 orange tree
The search engine uses two built in search words to mark the beginning and end of
a file: xfirstword and xlastword. The terms are useful if you
want to limit a search to the beginning or end of a file. For example, apple
w/10 xlastword would search for apple within 10 words of the end
of a document.
NOT and NOT W/N
Use NOT in front of any search expression to reverse its meaning. This allows
you to exclude documents from a search. Example:
apple sauce and not pear
NOT standing alone can be the start of a search request. For example, not pear
would retrieve all documents that did not contain pear.
If NOT is not the first connector in a request, you need to use either AND or OR
apple or not pear
not (apple w/5 pear)
The NOT W/ ("not within") operator allows you to search for a word or
phrase not in association with another word or phrase. Example:
apple not w/20 pear
Unlike the W/ operator, NOT W/ is not symmetrical. That is, apple not w/20
pear is not the same as pear not w/20 apple. In the apple not w/20 pear
request, the search engine searches for apple and excludes cases where apple
is too close to pear. In the pear not w/20 apple request, the
search engine searches for pear and excludes cases where pear is too
close to apple